List of Gardens

Very much a work-in-progress. If you have any pleasure gardens to add to this list, please let me know via the comments feature below. The name, dates of operation, and proprietor are given, where known, and where a secondary source has been consulted for the information, this is noted by providing the author’s last name in square brackets (see “Resources” for the publication in question).


San Francisco

  • Woodward’s Gardens (1866-1891), Sacramento Street near Leidesdorff, Robert B. Woodward.


New Orleans

  • Eliza Gardens (1810-1830s). [Douglas]
  • Large Oaks (1812). [Douglas]
  • Spanish Fort (1820s-1920s). [Douglas]
  • Rasch’s Garden (1826), Chartre Street. [Douglas]
  • Unnamed (1830). [Douglas]
  • Carrollton Gardens (1835-1891), end of St. Charles Ave. [Douglas]
  • Louisiana Tivoli (1840). [Douglas]
  • New Orleans Pleasure Garden (1842), Delord and Magazine. [Douglas]
  • Algiers (1843). [Douglas]
  • Jardin du Rocher de Ste. Helene (1844-48). [Douglas]
  • Tivoli Garden (1845-66), Roman Street and Carondelet Canal. [Douglas]
  • Mr. St. Vincent (1846), St. Anthony Square. [Douglas]
  • Vauxhall Gardens (1850-52). [Douglas]
  • Fasnacht’s Garden (1852). Poeyfarre and Annunciation [Douglas]
  • Kossuth Gardens (1852). [Douglas]
  • New Vauxhall Gardens (1853). [Douglas]
  • Magnolia Garden (1870-87). [Douglas]
  • West End (1880s-1920s). [Douglas]
  • Milneburg (1880s-1920s). [Douglas]
  • Pontchartrain Beach (1920s-1980s). [Douglas]

New York

New York

  • Governour’s Garden (17C). [Eberlein and Hubbard]
  • Cherry Garden (17C), Pearl and Cherry Streets. [Eberlein and Hubbard]
  • Spring Garden (c.1712-c. 1754) Broadway, Fulton, Nassau, and Ann Streets.
  • Bowling Green, renamed Vauxhall in 1750 (c.1722-1771), Greenwich and Warren St, Samuel Francis.
  • Adam Vandenberg’s Mead House and Garden (c. 1754-c. 1769), Fulton St, Charles St, Hudson, Broadway, Adam Vandenberg. [Garrett]
  • Catiemut’s (1730s), Freshwater Hill (today: Park Row, South of Pearl Street), Francis Child. [Garrett]
  • Corlear’s (1761-1777), Corlear’s Hook, James Elliot, James Ackland, then John Brandon. [Garrett]
  • Ranelagh Gardens (1765-68), Church and Thomas Streets, John Jones. [Garrett]
  • King’s Arms Tavern and Garden (1766-c.1780?), west of Broadway between Murray and Warren, Richard Howard, Edward Bardin. [Garrett]
  • The Kensington (1775), Beeckman between Gold and Cliff Streets, Edward Bardin. [Garrett]
  • Branon’s (1765). [Garrett]
  • White Conduit (1778-1782), west of Broadway between today’s Worth and Leonard Streets, tavern from 1767, Carl Roubalet, Henry Lake, John McKenzie, Samuel Matlock. [Garrett]
  • Brannon’s Garden (1779-1810), New York Gardens from 1795, Washington Gardens from 1798 today’s Spring and Hudson, Andrew Marschalk, Charles Brannon, George Gray, Joseph Tyler, John Hogg. [Garrett]
  • United States Garden (1785-1811), Vauxhall from 1793, same site as King’s Arms, Henry Kennedy, Mary Armory and Mr. Miller, John Conoit, Augustus Parise, Charles Bernard. [Garrett]
  • Florida (1788-1791/2), George Cummings, George Leaycraft. [Garrett]
  • Belvedere House (1792-1804), today’s Madison, Montgomery, Cherry, and Clinton Streets, John Avery, Daniel Dickson. [Garrett]
  • Indian Queen (1794), S side of today’s Christopher Street near Greenwich Street. [Garrett]
  • Ice-House Garden/Vauxhall (1796-1798), East of Broadway, Pine and Cedar Streets, Jacques Delacroix
  • Ranelagh Garden (1797-1800), Apollo’s and Vauxhall in 1797, Ranelagh from 1798, 5 Pearl Street near the Battery, Peter Thorn, Benjamin Isherwood. [Garrett]
  • Bloomingdale Inn and Tea Garden (1797-1815), E of Bloomingdale (today’s Broadweay) at today’s 70th Street, Thomas Palmer, Daniel Myer, Thomas Rogers. [Garrett]
  • Columbia Garden (1798-1809; 1819-1828), Slate Street at the Battery, Joseph Corre, Eleazer Hathaway. [Garrett]
  • Vauxhall Garden (1798-1805), between Grand, Broome, Crosby, and Lafayette Streets, Joseph Delacroix.
  • Mount Vernon Gardens (1800-1804), North of Leonard St, between Broadway and Church Street, Joseph Corre. [Garrett]
  • Corlear’s Hook Tavern and Garden (1800/01-1805), Corlear’s Hook (same site as the earlier garden of the same name). James Knox, Roderique Pate. [Garrett]
  • Tomlinson’s Tea Garden and Tavern (1802; 1806), Prince Street by the Bowery, Christopher Tomlinson, Bellamy. [Garrett]
  • Waldron’s Inn and Tea Garden (1805-1811), Sign of Noah’s Ark from sometime before 1811, north of Stuyvesant Street, E of Bowery, Benjamin Waldron. [Garrett]
  • Vauxhall Garden (1805-1855), between Bowery, Astor Place, Broadway, and 4th Street, Joseph Delacroix, Timothy Madden (Delacroix’s son-in-law), Joseph Hunt, Thomas Taplin Cooke, Henry Jones and Frederick(?) Bancker/Samuel Rockenburg, Bradford Jones, P.T. Barnum, James Anderson, A. W. Jackson, and others (became a saloon). [Garrett]
  • Contoit’s New Garden (1805-1846), 233 Broadway (across from the park), John Conoit. [Garrett]
  • Ranelagh (1806-1807), Grand Street, near Corlear’s Hook, William Wheatcroft. [Garrett]
  • Union Garden (1807-1808), on the site of the Ice-House Garden, Madame Hill. [Garrett]
  • Columbia Garden (1810-1831), 307 Broadway (between Duane and Thomas Streets), Daniel Ensley, Ferdinand Palmo. [Garrett]
  • Stone Bridge Garden (1811-1816), W of Broadway by the canal from Fresh Water Pond, Robert Morris. [Garrett]
  • Chatham Garden (1815-1826), Chatham Garden Theatre (operating separately from the gardens) from 1824, Chatham Street (now Park Row), Pearl, Augustus, and  Duane Streets, Hyppolite Barrere, Abraham Rider and Jonathan D. Stevenson [Garrett]
  • Apollo Gardens (1819), 37 Bowery, Clement Delacroix (son of Joseph). [Garrett]
  • Pearl Street Garden (1819-1820), N of Pearl Street, near Five Points. [Garrett]
  • City Garden (1819), Madame Morie. [Garrett]
  • Columbian Garden (1820-1829), Military Garden from 1824, Haytian Retreat (“a place of resort for colored people”) in 1829, SW of Broadway and Prince Streets, diagonally opposite Niblo’s, John J. Shaffer, Asa Taylor, Thomas Patrick, Uriah Ryder, John Lamb, Lewis K. Storms. [Garrett]
  • Retreat Garden (1821), W of Broadway between today’s Washington Place and Eight Street, William B. Hyer. [Garrett]
  • African Grove (1821),  Thomas and Church Streets. [Garrett and McAllister]
  • Richmond Hill Garden (1822-43), Tivoli from 1840, Charlton and Varick Streets, Thomas Patrick, James Dench, Isaac Batterton, William Blanchard, William P. Denamn, Samuel Butler, Phillipps and Innes. [Garrett]
  • Bell Cottage Garden (1822), 558 Broadway between Spring and Prince Streets, John C. Chambers. [Garrett]
  • Castle Garden (1824-1855).
  • Cold Spring Garden (1825-1828), Greenwich and Leroy Streets, Vincent De La Montayne, John H. Travis. [Garrett]
  • East River Garden (1826-1834), Corlear’s Hook, Thomas Kensett. [Garrett]
  • National Garden (1827-1829). [Garrett]
  • Mead Garden (1827), for “persons of color,” 13 Delancy Street, Nicholas Pierson. [Garrett]
  • Niblo’s (1828-1848) NE corner of Broadway and Prince Streets, William Niblo, continued as a theatre to 1895.
  • Mead Gardens (1828), 116 Front Street (corner with Jay Street), Brooklyn, Edward Haines.
  • Essex Garden (1830-1832), SE Rivington and Essex, Elias Howard, William S. Crane. [Garrett]
  • Village Garden (1830-1833), 41 6th Ave between 4th Street ad Washington Place, Lewis K. Storms. [Garrett]
  • Atlantic Garden (1840-60), 9-11 Broadway, opposite Bowling Green on Broadway, Thomas Peers and John Murtland, William Allison, James Lambert, Charles Morse and Charles McCay. [Garrett]
  • Maze Garden (c.1850-1861), aka Mount Croton Garden, E of 5th Ave and 40th Street, A. S. Mitchell. [Garrett]
  • Bellevue Garden (1856-1857), today’s 79th-80th Streets along the east river, S. Ward, John Barlow. [Garrett]
  • Metropolitan Garden (1857-1859), 2nd Ave and 30th Street, James Lambert and David Gardner, Augustus Bachus and Charles Bender. [Garrett]
  • Palace Garden (1858-1862), Cremorne Garden from 18606th Ave between 14th end 15th Streets, Cornelius Deforest and Tisdale, James Nixon. [Garrett]



  • Vauxhall was proposed for 1798 in “the rural groves at the western end of West Boston Bridge” but never opened.
  • Washington Gardens (1814-1828) renamed Vauxhall in 1815, Common Street; various managers, including John H. Schaffer and James Hewitt.



  • Rural Retreat (1789-1847) renamed Easton’s Garden from 1801, Rural Felicity and The Seige of York from 1804,  and Columbian Gardens from 1809; proprietors included Margret Myers, Nicholas W. Easton, Thomas Leaman, and William Curtauin. Bond Street and Dulany Road.
  • Spring Gardens (c. 1790), down the Patapsco River, about a mile from the town, across the water. [Sarudy]
  • Chelsea, or Toon’s Pleasure Garden (c. 1790), John Toon. [Sarudy]
  • Jalland’s Garden (1793-?), renamed Staple’s Garden in 1802, near Fell’s Point, at “the foot of Philopt’s Hill,” John Jalland. [Sarudy]
  • Gray’s Gardens (1794-1805), renamed Chatsworth Gardens from 1800, Green and Saratoga Streets, John Gray, then John J. Mang.
  • Whitehall Gardens (c. 1824), Bank near market, Thomas Watson.
  • Belvieu Gardens (c.1827-c. 1831), Warren and William Streets/Federal Hill, Samuel P Busey, and Rogers and Coyle.
  • Bellvue Gardens (c. 1860-1865), Baltimore Street W of Fulton Ave, Rullman, Sprecklemeyer.



  • Colombian Gardens (1899-1925), amusement park from 1925-1973, William A Clark.



  • Center House Garden (?), near City Hall. [Eberlein and Hubbard]
  • New Bath (c. 1765). [Sarudy]
  • Gray’s Garden/Ferry (1789-1792), by ferry over Schuykill river, Gray brothers.
  • Vauxhall Harrowgate (1789-1791, 1810), 4 miles NE of Philadelphia, George Esterly.
  • Wigwam Gardens (c. 1791-c. 1795), on the Schuykill at the end of Race Street, John Coyle. [Sarudy; Eberlein and Hubbard]
  • Bush Hill (1796). [Eberlein and Hubbard]
  • Lombardy Gardens (c. 1803), Market Street at 14th Street. [Duclow]
  • Lebanon Garden (ND), 10th and South Streets, also a tavern. [Duclow]
  • Center House Garden (c.1808). [Duclow]
  • Columbia Garden (1813-1819?), Market Street between 13th and 14th Streets, Lawrence Astolfi. [Duclow]
  • Vauxhall Garden (1813-1825), on 14th and Walnut Streets, Broad Street between Walnut and Chestnut Streets.
  • Tivoli (c.1824 ?). [Duclow]
  • Chinese Pagonda and Labyrinth Gardens (1828-?), NE of Fairmount. [Eberlein and Hubbard]
  • McArann’s (1839-1842), Filbert Street between Schuylkill Fifth and Sixth Streets, John McArann, previously a botanical garden.

South Carolina


  • Vauxhall (1795-1821) at Queen, Broad, and Friend (later Legare) Streets, Joseph Bulit and Antoine Lavalette, Alexander Placide.
  • Orange Gardens (c.1760).
  • Tivoli  (c.1825).
  • Niagara (c.1842).



  • Riffaud’s Gardens (c. 1805), Riffauld. [Sarudy]


  • Vauxhall (c.1802).
  • Falling Gardens (c. 1805). [Sarudy]

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